Pulsed Electron Deposition
   Suitable for a wide range of materials, including multi-component metal oxides, complex alloys, and novel polymers
   Non-equilibrium extraction of target material (ablation) facilitates stoichiometric deposition
   Computer controlled for maximum reproducibility
  S Available as turnkey system or electron source package.
What is PED?
Pulsed Electron Deposition is a process in which a pulsed (100 ns) high power electron beam (approximately 1000 A, 15 keV) penetrates approximately 1 μm into the target resulting in a rapid evaporation of target material, and its transformation in plasma state. The non-equilibrium extraction of the target material (ablation) facilitates stochiometric composition of the plasma. Under optimum conditions, the target stoichiometry is thus preserved in the deposited films. All solid state materials-metals, semiconductors and insulators, can be deposited as thin films with PED.
PED's strengths´.
In contrast to CW techniques such as conventional e-beam evaporation, the main feature of the pulsed systems is the ability to generate a high power density of ゛108W/cm2 at the target surface. As a result, thermodynamic properties of the target material such as the melting point and specific heat become unimportant for the evaporation process. This is particularly advantageous in the case of complex, multi-component materials. As in the case of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), the Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) technique provides a unique platform for depositing thin films of complex materials on a variety of technologically important substrates, with a unique strength of extending the range of materials and applications. The technique is scalable and cost effective in high volume manufacturing.
Beyond PLD´.
PED technique is expected to extend the range of materials that can be deposited as thin films using pulsed deposition techniques. Unlike PLD, where the ablation process is critically dependent on the optical absorption coefficient of the target material, in PED, the ablation depends only on the range of electrons in the target. For most of the solid state materials, this range is of the order of a few microns. SiO2 with a large optical band-gap of 10eV for example, is transparent to the 248 nm Kr-F excimerlaser radiation. In PED technique however, the high-power electrons can strongly couple to the target material (SiO2), leading to SiO2 film deposition. The beam-solid interaction mechanism is quite different in PED in comparison to PLD. This unique difference provides thin film experimentalists a mechanism to extend the parameter-space required for certain novel materials fabrication.